# Formal Written Methods

## Examples of formal written methods for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

The following examples show formal written methods for all four operations to illustrate the range of methods that could be taught. It is not intended to be an exhaustive list, nor is it intended to show progression in formal written methods. For example, the exact position of intermediate calculations (superscript and subscript digits) will vary depending on the method and format used.

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Examples above reproduced under the terms of the UK Open Government Licence. Reference: DFE-00180-2013

Extract from the UK Year 6 programme of study:

Pupils should be taught to:

• multiply multi-digit numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication
• divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding, as appropriate for the context;
• divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit number using the formal written method of short division where appropriate, interpreting remainders according to the context.

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